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日期:2019-05-03 10:25

Coursework 2

Computer Processors (COMP1212)

The files required to complete this coursework are available on GitLab.

You should complete the coursework in the files provided, do not rename

any of the files or change the directory structure.

Submission You must submit your work via GitLab and also on the Minerva.

1. GitLab: Ensure that all changes have been committed and pushed

before the deadline. You should commit frequently.

2. Minerva: Ensure that the coursework directory is compressed into

a .tar.gz archive and submitted to the Minerva.

Late submissions are accepted up to 7 days late. Each day, or part of

a day, will incur a 5% penalty.

Deadline TBC.

Weighting This piece of summative coursework is worth 15% of your grade.

This coursework involves implementing components of a computer processor

covered in te lectures. You should provide an implementation of each

of the following components in hdl. You are provided with a description of

the behaviour of each of the components as well as test files to ensure it

behaves according to specification.

Implement the following .hdl files

- HalfAdder.hdl

- FullAdder.hdl

- Add16.hdl

- ALU.hdl

- Bit.hdl

- Register.hdl

- Inc16.hdl

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- PC.hdl

- RAM8.hdl

- RAM64.hdl

- RAM512.hdl

- RAM4K.hdl

- RAM16K.hdl

- CPU.hdl

- Computer.hdl

Marking

The marking of the .hdl files is automated so it is important that you do not

rename or alter the directory structure of your submission from that provided

on GitLab and Minerva. Marks will be allocated in the following way:

- 10 marks for correct implementation of the components according to

their specification

- 5 marks for minimising complexity of the implementations

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Chip descriptions

Chip name: HalfAdder

Inputs: x, y

Outputs: sum, carry

Function: Computes the sum of two bits.

Chip name: FullAdder

Inputs: x, y, z

Outputs: sum, carry

Function: Computes the sum of three bits.

Chip name: Add16

Inputs: x[16], y[16]

Outputs: result

Function: Adds two 16-bit values. The most significant carry bit is ignored.

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Chip name: ALU

Inputs: x[16], y[16], zx, nx, zy, ny, f, no

Outputs: out[16],zr,ng

Function: Computes one of the following functions:

on two 16-bit inputs, according to 6 input bits denoted zx, nx, zy,ny,

f, no. The bit-combinations that yield each function are documented

Figure 2.6 of The elements of Computing Systems. In addition, the

ALU computes two 1-bit outputs: if the ALU output is 0, zr is set to

1; otherwise zr is set to 0; If out < 0, ng is set to 1; otherwise ng is set

to 0.

Chip name: Bit

Inputs: x, load

Outputs: out

Function: If load[t] = 1 then out[t + 1] = x[t] else out does not change

(out[t + 1] = out[t])

Chip name: Register

Inputs: x[16], load

Outputs: out[16]

Function: If load[t] = 1 then out[t + 1] = x[t] else out does not change

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Chip name: Inc16

Inputs: x[16]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: 16-bit incrementer: out = x + 1 (arithmetic addition)

Chip name: PC

Inputs: x[16], load, inc,reset

Outputs: out[16]

Function: A 16-bit counter with load and reset control bits.

if (reset[t] == 1) out[t + 1] = 0

else if (load[t] == 1) out[t + 1] = in[t]

else if (inc[t] == 1) out[t + 1] = out[t] + 1 (integer addition)

else out[t + 1] = out[t]

Chip name: RAM8

Inputs: x[16], load, address[3]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: Memory of 8 registers, each 16 bit-wide. ‘Out’ holds the value

stored at the memory location specified by address. If load= 1, then

the ‘x’ value is loaded into the memory location specified by address

(the loaded value will be emitted to out after the next time step.)

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Chip name: RAM64

Inputs: x[16], load, address[6]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: Memory of 64 registers, each 16 bit-wide. ‘Out’ holds the value

stored at the memory location specified by address. If load= 1, then

the ‘x’ value is loaded into the memory location specified by address

(the loaded value will be emitted to out after the next time step.)

Chip name: RAM512

Inputs: x[16], load, address[6]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: Memory of 512 registers, each 16 bit-wide. Out holds the value

stored at the memory location specified by address. If load=1, then

the in value is loaded into the memory location specified by address

(the loaded value will be emitted to out after the next time step.)

Chip name: RAM4K

Inputs: x[16], load, address[12]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: Memory of 4K registers, each 16 bit-wide. Out holds the value

stored at the memory location specified by address. If load=1, then

the in value is loaded into the memory location specified by address

(the loaded value will be emitted to out after the next time step.)

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Chip name: RAM16K

Inputs: x[16], load, address[14]

Outputs: out[16]

Function: Memory of 16K registers, each 16 bit-wide. Out holds the value

stored at the memory location specified by address. If load=1, then the

in value is loaded into the memory location specified by address (the

loaded value will be emitted to out after the next time step.)

Chip name: CPU

Inputs: inM[16], instruction[16],reset

Outputs: outM[16], writeM ,addressM[16], pc[15]

Function: Consists of an ALU and a set of registers, designed to fetch and

execute instructions written in the Hack machine language. In particular,

functions as follows: Executes the inputted instruction according

to the Hack machine language specification. The ‘D’ and ‘A’ in the language

specification refer to CPU-resident registers, while ‘M’ refers to

the external memory location addressed by ‘A’, i.e. to Memory[A]. The

‘inM’ input holds the value of this location. If the current instruction

needs to write a value to ‘M’, the value is placed in ‘outM’, the address

of the target location is placed in the ‘addressM’ output, and the

‘writeM’ control bit is asserted. (When ‘writeM’= 0, any value may appear

in ‘outM’). The ‘outM’ and ‘writeM’ outputs are combinational:

they are affected instantaneously by the execution of the current instruction.

The ‘addressM’ and ‘pc’ outputs are clocked: although they

are affected by the execution of the current instruction, they commit

to their new values only in the next time unit. If ‘reset’= 1 then the

CPU jumps to address 0 (i.e. sets ‘pc’= 0 in next time unit) rather

than to the address resulting from executing the current instruction.

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Chip name: Computer

Inputs: reset

Outputs:

Function: The HACK computer, including CPU, ROM and RAM. When

reset is 0, the program stored in the computer’s ROM executes. When

reset is 1, the execution of the program restarts. Thus, to start a

program’s execution, reset must be pushed “up” (1) and “down” (0).

From this point onward the user is at the mercy of the software. In

particular, depending on the program’s code, the screen may show some

output and the user may be able to interact with the computer via the

keyboard.

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